Data


A key component of the ASPIRE work is to identify social protection and labor benefits and services captured in household survey instruments. A deep understanding of the social protection system in the country is needed to identify and properly classify social protection benefits and schemes that are different in nature (contributory and non-contributory), in modality (cash, food, near-cash, subsidies) and targeting approach (universal, categorical and targeted benefits).

Users are strongly encouraged to review the following documentation files when using the ASPIRE database to better understand which social protection programs are included.

To enable time-series analysis, ASPIRE uses different waves of the same national household survey within a country, with a few exceptions related to survey discontinuation and/or changes in survey design (Costa Rica, Djibouti, Liberia, Panama, the Philippines, Russian Federation and The Gambia).


Data availability
Harmonization methodology

The ASPIRE harmonization methodology for household survey data rests on the following three steps:

1. Identification and classification of SPL benefits and services

Household surveys are carefully reviewed to identify SPL program information. Once this information is located, two levels of analysis are implemented: first, variables are created for each of the country specific programs found in the survey. If the original program name is not provided in the survey instrument, the variable will report the corresponding ASPIRE’s program subcategories according to how the question is framed and country context.

Additionally, program variables are aggregated and harmonized into 12 SPL program categories, and 2 private transfer categories. The country specific programs included into these main SPL categories are documented in detail below and are validated by country task teams in close coordination with national counterparts.

In order to generate the indicators, the following variables are also harmonized: household identification number, location (urban/rural), household size, adult equivalent household size, welfare aggregate, household weight and poverty line, defined as the poorest 20% of the welfare distribution.

2. Welfare aggregates

Households are ranked in quintiles of the welfare distribution (either household total income or consumption). Special efforts are made to include the most recently updated welfare aggregates officially agreed with National Statistical Offices and /or harmonized by regional poverty teams (or the Socio-Economic Database for Latin America and the Caribbean (SEDLAC) in the case of Latin American countries and the ECAPOV database in the case of Eastern Europe and Central Asian countries. These welfare aggregates are also consistent with the ones used by World Bank PovcalNet poverty estimates.

3. PPP conversions

All monetary variables (transfer amounts) and the welfare aggregate are deflated to 2011 US$ PPP values and then converted to international US Dollars according to the following: [all transfers and welfare (t)/CPI (2011)] / [ICP (2011)] where ICP (2011) is the PPP conversion factor base 2011 of private consumption.

Once the information is harmonized performance indicators are generated using ADePT SP software.


Program documentation and classification description files

Expenditure

Find here the list of programs for which expenditure data are available in ASPIRE, classified according to the respective category.

Performance indicators

The following links provide a description of how information on SPL program participation or transfer amount is captured in the original household surveys. In addition it explains which programs have been aggregated into each of the ASPIRE harmonized SPL categories. Users should be aware of the caveats implicit in the ASPIRE methodology.

SPL-harmonized program variables can be monetary (transfer amount) or participatory, depending on how the information is collected by the survey instrument. Monetary values, including welfare, are expressed in daily PPP.

Indicators definitions

Country context indicators

Demographic patterns: Share of the total country population that is children (0-14), youth (15-24), adult working age (25-59), elderly (60+).

Elderly with non-elderly co-residence rate: Co-residence is defined as elderly living in a household with non-elderly members (with elderly population defined as people who are 60 and older). The elderly co-residence rate indicator is defined as the number of households where elderly individuals live with non-elderly divided by the total number of households with elderly individuals in the population.

Household dependency rate: Average household dependency rate computed as number of dependents in a household divided by number of working age population in the same household. Dependents are children and elderly, and working age population those age 15-60.

Age-based poverty rates: Share of an age group that is among the poorest 40% of individuals in a country. Individuals are ranked from lowest to highest based on household per capita welfare (either consumption expenditure or income). Per capita household welfare is calculated by dividing household consumption or income by household size. The poverty measure is not equivalized, and so no adjustments are made for economies of scale or economies of composition. The age groups are children (0-14), youth (15-24), working age (25-59), and elderly (60+). Indicators are disaggregated by urban/rural and male/female.

Labor market status: Share of population that is employed, unemployed and inactive, for all 15+ population and disaggregated by gender, urban/rural and age groups. Employed is defined as anyone who has worked at least one hour during the previous week for pay, profit, or family gain. A person is defined as unemployed if he or she is, presently not working but is actively seeking a job or ways to start an enterprise. The formal definition of unemployed usually includes being ‘able to accept a job’. This last question was asked in a minority of surveys and is, thus, not incorporated in the present definition. A person presently not working but waiting the start of a new job is considered to be unemployed. Those who are neither employed nor unemployed are inactive. A person is defined “inactive non-student” if he or she is inactive and not attending school. In surveys where school attendance is not asked, school enrollment is used instead.

Labor Force participation rate: Labor force participation rate is defined as the share of working age population that is active - either employed or unemployed for all 15+ population and disaggregated by gender, urban/rural and age groups. All persons are considered active in the labor force if they presently have a job (formal or informal, i.e., are employed) or do not have a job but are actively seeking work (i.e., unemployed).

Unemployment rate: The share of labor force that is unemployed for all 15+ population and disaggregated by gender, urban/rural and age groups. A person is defined as unemployed if he or she is, presently not working but is actively seeking a job or ways to start an enterprise. The formal definition of unemployed usually includes being ‘able to accept a job’. This last question was asked in a minority of surveys and is, thus, not incorporated in the present definition. A person presently not working but waiting the start of a new job is considered to be unemployed.

Youth to Adult Unemployment Rate Ratio: Ratio of the youth unemployment rate to the adult unemployment rate, for all 15+ population and disaggregated by gender and urban/rural. Youth are defined as 15 to 24 year olds, while adults are defined as 25 to 59 year olds. The unemployment rate is calculated as the share of the active population that is unemployed.

Employment Status: Share of employed workers whose primary job falls into four employment status categories: employers, wage employees, self-employed, unpaid family workers, for all population and disaggregated by gender, urban/rural and age groups. Employers are business owners with paid employees, not including contributing family members. Paid employees include anyone whose remuneration is not directly dependent on the revenue of the unit they work for, and is typically collected in the form of wage and salary (but may also include piece work or payments in-kind). Self-employed workers are those whose remuneration is directly dependent on the goods and services produced or sold, including production for home consumption. This category of workers does not have any permanent employees working for them on a continuous basis during the past week, and also includes members of producers’ cooperatives. Unpaid family workers are those who are self-employed in an establishment operated by a relative, and who are not considered a full partner to that relative. In the I2D2, for a small number of cases (about 2 percent) there is insufficient information to classify workers’ type of job and these workers are excluded from these calculations.

Employment Structure by Sector: Share of employed workers whose primary jobs are classified in the agricultural, industrial, or service sectors, for all population and disaggregated by gender, urban/rural and age groups. The sector classification is based on the UN international standard industrial classification (ISIC) codes. Agriculture includes fishing and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, and construction. Services include utilities, commerce, transportation, communication, finance, insurance, real estate, public administration, and other services.

Expenditure and program size indicators

Expenditure refers to the total social assistance program expenditure including spending on benefits and on administrative costs and is expressed as percent of GDP. The indicator captures both the recurrent and capital program budget and is based on administrative program records. The indicator is calculated for program categories (unconditional cash transfer, conditional cash transfer, social pension, etc.) by summing up program level expenditures for the respective category.

Program size refers to the program number of beneficiaries in the rolls based on administrative sources (not yet available).

Performance indicators

Working through the World Bank ADePT SP software, ASPIRE provides information on the following performance indicators:

Average per capita transfer: Average per capita transfer among program beneficiaries (daily 2005 $PPP). The indicator is estimated by program type, for the entire population and by quintiles of both the post-transfer and pre-transfer welfare distribution. Programs are aggregated into social assistance, social insurance and labor market according to ASPIRE classification. Indicators for all SPL programs provide the totals summing up the social assistance, social insurance and labor market figures. For each household, per capita average transfer is estimated as total transfers received divided by the household size.

Coverage: Percentage of population participating in social protection and labor programs (includes direct and indirect beneficiaries). The indicator is estimated by program type, for the entire population and by quintiles of both the post-transfer and pre-transfer welfare distribution. Programs are aggregated into social assistance, social insurance and labor market according to ASPIRE classification. Indicators for all SPL programs provide the totals summing up the social assistance, social insurance and labor market figures. Specifically, coverage is (number of individuals in the quintile who live in a household where at least one member receives the transfer)/(number of individuals in that quintile).

Benefit incidence: Percentage of benefits going to each group/quintile of the post-transfer (or pre-transfer) welfare distribution relative to the total benefits going to the population. The indicator is estimated by program type and by quintiles of both the post-transfer and pre-transfer welfare distribution. Programs are aggregated into social assistance, social insurance and labor market according to ASPIRE classification. Indicators for all SPL programs provide the totals summing up the social assistance, social insurance and labor market figures. Specifically, benefit incidence is equal to (sum of all transfers received by all individuals in the quintile)/(sum of all transfers received by all individuals in the population). The indicator includes both direct and indirect beneficiaries.

Beneficiary incidence: Percentage of program beneficiaries in a quintile relative to the total number of beneficiaries in the population. The indicator is estimated by program type and by quintiles of both the post-transfer and pre-transfer welfare distribution. Programs are aggregated into social assistance, social insurance and labor market according to ASPIRE classification. Indicators for all SPL programs provide the totals summing up the social assistance, social insurance and labor market figures. Specifically, beneficiary incidence is (Number of individuals in each quintile who live in a household where at least one member participates in a SPL program)/(Number of individuals participating in SPL programs in the population). The indicator includes both direct and indirect beneficiaries.

Adequacy of benefits: The total transfer amount received by all beneficiaries in a quintile as a share of the total welfare of beneficiaries in that quintile. The indicator is estimated by program type, for the entire population and by quintiles of both the post-transfer and pre-transfer welfare distribution. Programs are aggregated into social assistance, social insurance and labor market according to ASPIRE classification. Specifically, adequacy of benefits is (Amount of transfers receives by a quintile)/(Total income or consumption of beneficiaries in that quintile). Indicators for all SPL programs provide the totals summing up the social assistance, social insurance and labor market figures. The indicator includes both direct and indirect beneficiaries.

Gini inequality reduction: Simulated percentage change on Gini inequality coefficient due to SPL programs. The Gini coefficient of the population’s income distribution is measured assuming the absence of the programs (pre-transfer welfare distribution). Specifically, Gini inequality reduction is computed as (Inequality pre transfer- inequality post transfer) / inequality pre transfer. The indicator is estimated for the entire population and by program type. Programs are aggregated into social assistance, social insurance and labor market according ASPIRE classification. Indicators for all SPL programs provide the totals summing up the social assistance, social insurance and labor market figures.

Poverty headcount reduction: Simulated change (%) on poverty headcount due to SPL programs. Poverty headcount ratio is the percentage of the population below the poverty line and it is measured assuming the absence of the programs (pre-transfer welfare distribution). Specifically, poverty headcount reduction is computed as (poverty headcount pre transfer- poverty headcount post transfer) / poverty headcount pre transfer. The indicator is estimated for the entire population and by program type. Programs are aggregated into social assistance, social insurance and labor market according to ASPIRE classification. Indicators for all SPL programs provide the totals summing up the social assistance, social insurance and labor market figures.

Poverty gap reduction: Simulated change (%) on poverty gap due to SPL programs. The poverty gap index is the average percentage shortfall in income of poor people, from the poverty line and it is measured assuming the absence of the programs (pre-transfer welfare distribution). Specifically, poverty gap reduction is computed as (poverty gap pre transfer- poverty gap post transfer) / poverty gap pre transfer. The indicator is estimated for the entire population and by program type. Programs are aggregated into social assistance, social insurance and labor market according to ASPIRE classification. Indicators for all SPL programs provide the totals summing up the social assistance, social insurance and labor market figures.

Benefit-cost ratio: Reduction in poverty gap obtained for each $1 spent in SPL programs. The indicator is estimated for the entire population and by program type. Specifically, benefit-cost ratio is estimated as (poverty gap before transfer - poverty gap after transfer)/ total transfer amount. Programs are aggregated into social assistance, social insurance and labor market according to ASPIRE classification. Indicators for all SPL programs provide the totals summing up the social assistance, social insurance and labor market figures.

Program duplication and overlap: Percentage of population receiving no program or percentage of beneficiaries receiving one or more programs from different SPL. The indicator is estimated by program type, for the entire population and by quintiles of both the pre-transfer and post-transfer welfare distribution. Programs are aggregated into social assistance, social insurance and labor market according to ASPIRE classification. Indicators for all SPL programs provide the totals summing up the social assistance, social insurance and labor market figures.

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