Household surveys have their own limitations. It is important to note that the extent to which information on specific transfers and programs is captured in the household surveys can vary a lot across countries. Often household surveys do not capture the universe of social protection and labor (SPL) programs in the country, in best practice cases just the largest programs. Many household surveys have limited information on SPL programs, some surveys collect information only on participation without including the transfer amounts; and others include program information mixed with private transfers, making it difficult to isolate individual SPL programs.
Therefore information on country SPL programs included in ASPIRE is limited to what is captured in the respective national household survey and does not necessarily represent the universe of programs existing in the country. In addition, the availability of ASPIRE indicators depends on the type of questions included in the survey. If transfer amounts are available, for example, adequacy and impact on poverty indicators can be generated. If only program participation questions are included in the survey, only non-monetary indicators can be generated such as coverage or beneficiary incidence.
As a consequence, ASPIRE performance indicators are not fully comparable across harmonized program categories and countries.
However, household surveys have the unique advantages of allowing analysis of program impact on household welfare. With such caveats in mind, ASPIRE indicators based on household surveys provide an approximate measure of social protection systems performance.
Generally, ASPIRE indicators are based on a first level analysis of original household survey data (with no imputations) and on a unified methodology that does not necessarily reflect country-specific knowledge and in depth country analysis relying on different data sources (administrative program level data). While efforts are made to ensure consistency between ASPIRE indicators and WB regional and country reports, there may still be cases where ASPIRE performance indicators differ from official WB country reports.
Important disclaimer for users related to country context, age-based poverty rates
indicators. Not using economies of scale may make individuals in small households
appear better off compared to those in large households. Not applying economies
of composition assumes that all household members have equal income or expenditure
needs/utilization, and so this may bias results downward (making households with
shares of children and/or elderly appear poorer). Those poverty indicators should
therefore be treated with caution for making any policy and program assessments,
or generalizations of which age group is more or less poor. Ideally, each country
would apply its own equivalence adjustments that are appropriate to its national
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